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S such as diabetes mellitus [74], chronicTong et al. BMC Endocrine Disorders 2010, 10:4 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6823/10/Page 3 ofalcoholism [75], or obesity with metabolic syndrome [45,46]. These systemic diseases share in common with primary central nervous system (CNS) degenerative diseases, impairments in cognition, and deficits in insulin and IGF signaling mechanisms, insulin/IGF res