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Ther hand, recent studies showed that HFD feeding causes obesity, T2DM, and cognitive impairment, but is not sufficient to cause AD [45,46]. Therefore, it's likely that chronic HFD feeding which results in peripheral insulin resistance may provide a second-hit, and that combined with low-dose nitrosamine or other environmental exposures, it may increase the severity of neurodegeneration. In the pr
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Ds, and cholesterol levels compared with LFD+VEH and LFD +NDEA treated groups. In addition, the serum free fatty acid level was significantly lower in the LFD+NDEA compared with LFD+VEH treated rats, whereas the triglyceride and cholesterol levels were similar in the two groups. Therefore, hyperglycemia, hyper-insulinemia, and hyper-leptinemia were features of chronic HFD feeding, and worsened by
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Lyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and immunodetection reagents were purchased from Abcam (Cambridge, MA), Vector Laboratories (Burlingame, CA), Upstate (Billerica, MA), Chemicon (Temecula, CA), or Molecular Probes (Eugene, OR). The insulin ultra-sensitive ELISA kit was obtained from ALPCO Diagnostics (Salem, NH). Histochoice fixative was purchased from Amresco, Inc (Solon, OH). Antibodies to tumo
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Terbalance the tendency of two other major neurotransmitters in the brain dopamine and noradrenaline to encourage overarousal, fear, anger, tension, aggression, violence, obsessive-compulsive actions, overeating, anxiety and sleep disturbances [60].Page 8 of(page number not for citation purposes)BMC Physiology 2009, 9:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6793/9/ConclusionThe present results revealed
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Changes characterized by focal loss of Purkinje neurons (Fig. 1-A3). NDEA exposure, with or without chronic HFD feeding, resulted in loss of Purkinje cells (Figs. 1-A2, 1-A4) and variable thinning of the granule cell layer. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated similar levels and distributions of GFAP immunoreactivity in cells distributed in the granule layer of control (Fig 1-B1) and HFD-fed
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Agent for RNA extraction and QuantiTect SYBR Green PCR Mix were obtained from Qiagen, Inc (Valencia, CA). The AMV 1st Strand cDNAPostnatal day 3 (P3) Long Evans rat pups (mean body weight 10 g) were given 3 alternate day intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injections of 20 g NDEA or vehicle. Upon weaning, male rats (N = 8-10 per group) were pair-fed for 8 weeks with high fat (HFD) or low fat (LFD) chow diets.
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S such as diabetes mellitus [74], chronicTong et al. BMC Endocrine Disorders 2010, 10:4 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6823/10/Page 3 ofalcoholism [75], or obesity with metabolic syndrome [45,46]. These systemic diseases share in common with primary central nervous system (CNS) degenerative diseases, impairments in cognition, and deficits in insulin and IGF signaling mechanisms, insulin/IGF res
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Agent for RNA extraction and QuantiTect SYBR Green PCR Mix were obtained from Qiagen, Inc (Valencia, CA). The AMV 1st Strand cDNAPostnatal day 3 (P3) Long Evans rat pups (mean body weight 10 g) were given 3 alternate day intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injections of 20 g NDEA or vehicle. Upon weaning, male rats (N = 8-10 per group) were pair-fed for 8 weeks with high fat (HFD) or low fat (LFD) chow diets.