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Tential impact of HIV-1 diversity on both vaccine development and the sustainability of antiretroviral therapies, it is particularly important that molecular epidemiological surveillance is continued in HIV diversity hotspots such as Cameroon. In this study we have focused on characterizing the diversity of gag and nef genes of Cameroonian HIV-1 isolates. These genes are?2013 Tongo et al.; license
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S clustered within the CRF02_AG clade, reinforcing the notion that this viral clade is a major contributor of genetic material to new recombinants [20]; an alternative explanation, however, could be that the gag and nef genes were amplified from different viruses co-infecting the same patients. Ongoing molecular and clinical surveillance will reveal whether new recombinants will begin to circulate
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S clustered within the CRF02_AG clade, reinforcing the notion that this viral clade is a major contributor of genetic material to new recombinants [20]; an alternative explanation, however, could be that the gag and nef genes were amplified from different viruses co-infecting the same patients. Ongoing molecular and clinical surveillance will reveal whether new recombinants will begin to circulate
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A CRF02_AGa CRF02_AGa CRF02_AGaCRF02_AG CRF22_01A1 CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF36_cpxb/F2b CRF02_AG NDc CRF02_AG CRF02_AG ND NDc cCRF02_AG CRF01_AE CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF01/F CRF02_AG A-likeb CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF01_AE CRF02_AG NDc CRF02_AGNDc CRF02_AG A1 A1 F G A1 CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF37_cpx F CRF01_AE CRF37_cpx Ub DCRF02_AGa CRF02_AG URF A1 URF G URF
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Mpled sequences are likely CRF02_AG (accounting for 50 of HIV-1M infections), with the other "pure" subtypes (G, D, A, and F) and CRFs (CRF11_cpx, 36_cpx, 37_cpx, and CRF01_AE) accounting for the remainder of infections. CRF02_AG and clade G viruses are broadly distributed across west central Africa and have apparently been circulating stably there for many years [3,17-19], consistent with the pr
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F known clades. Although the majority of the outlier viruses found in our study were also URFs, they remained outliers after the removal of recombinant segments. It thus appears that these sequences represent viruses that are genuinely highly divergent and are possibly extant descendants of previously unknown early divergingTable 3 Inter and intraclade recombinantsSample ID BS02 BS09 BS11 BS13 BS2
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Combine to form a C5 convertase. Runaway complement activation is prevented by binding of Complement Receptor 1 (CR1) and a constitutively active membrane bound Decay Accelerating Factor (DAF, or CD55) which can prevent the complement cascade[51]. In patients with severe dengue, large amounts of C3a have been detected revealing a role for complement in dengue pathogenesis. This finding might be an
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A CRF02_AGa CRF02_AGa CRF02_AGaCRF02_AG CRF22_01A1 CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF36_cpxb/F2b CRF02_AG NDc CRF02_AG CRF02_AG ND NDc cCRF02_AG CRF01_AE CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF01/F CRF02_AG A-likeb CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF01_AE CRF02_AG NDc CRF02_AGNDc CRF02_AG A1 A1 F G A1 CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF37_cpx F CRF01_AE CRF37_cpx Ub DCRF02_AGa CRF02_AG URF A1 URF G URF