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Ning (no staining for p-ERK (score 0); weak p-ERK (score 1+), moderate p-ERK (score 2+), and strong p-ERK (score 3 +) staining) in Fig. 3. Staining intensities were grouped as dichotomous variables, defining scores 0? as low and 2? as high expression levels [25]. Evaluation of staining was carried out independently by two pathologists (MM and MA) blinded to patients' outcome and pathological stage
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Enhancer of the Kinase Suppressor of Ras-1), a regulator and binding partner of KSR1, is another scaffolding protein which is less understood. Its role in pancreatic cancer biology, or as a biomarker, remains to be explored. Current data suggests that CNKSR1 has multiple roles cancer biology, with some reports demonstrating that CNKSR1 interacts with tumor suppressors and othersdescribe its scaffo
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For the 34 CNKSR1 low cases (logrank test, p = 0.03). Table 3 presents the unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios for pancreatic cancer cases by CNKSR1 expression status. In the unadjusted model, cases with CNKSR1 low tumors had an increased risk of death compared to those with CNKSR1 high tumors with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.61 (95 CI: 1.06 to 2.46). In a model that adjusted for resection, TNM st
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Galectin-1 transfectants. A population of GFP-sorted cells (the "Gal-1" bars in Figure 4A) was compared to its parental counterpart. The number of metabolically-active cells attached to fibronectin was no different between the two lines at eight hours. Changing the media at four hours reduced the number of cells left for labeling, but the effect was equal in both groups, suggesting a similar rate
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Of each cell colony over 24 hours was calculated. Data for each cell line was averaged over 10 wells and compared between parental, control transfected, and galectin-1 transfected cells. A t-test was applied to compare means.In vitro invasion assay6.8 pg +/- 4.2 pg. In spite of this variability, the quality of the RNA was consistently high with a mean RNA integrity number of 8.13 ?0.74. Expression
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Or cells, which was due to the activation of ERK and p53. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the molecular mechanism of the chemotherapeutic effects of Triphala against pancreatic cancer. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the known mediators of intracellular signaling cascades. Excessive production of ROS nonetheless leads to oxidative stress, loss of cell function and
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Ss microarray chip platforms when hybridizing the same sample RNA [32]. Additionally,Toussaint et al. Molecular Cancer 2012, 11:32 http://www.molecular-cancer.com/content/11/1/Page 8 ofFigure 4 (A) Galectin-1 transfection does not alter U87MG attachment to fibronectin. Attachment to fibronectin-coated 96-well plates was quantitated with an MTT assay with and without a media change in the middle of
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Radial migration assay was performed as previously described [30,31]. In a blinded fashion, various U87Gal-1 clones were analyzed and compared to U87GFP controls and parental U87MG cells. Of each clone, 2500 cells were allowed to sediment through a cooled manifold onto laminin-coated cell culture wells (Creative Scientific Methods, Inc., Phoenix, AZ). The manifold and slide were incubated together